手机微信:13704813968

汽车发动机余热溴化锂吸收式制冷系统研究

晨怡热管 (邵阳学院机械与能源工程系 湖南 邵阳 422000) 周东一 石楚平 肖飚 袁文华 2009/3/11 23:19:53

摘  要:根据现有汽车空调的制冷系统和发动机冷却水及排气系统的结构特点,结合溴化锂吸收式制冷系统的工作原理,提出将汽车排气管和发动机冷却水箱进行结构改造作为溴化锂吸收式制冷系统的发生器,代替传统的汽车空调的制冷和采暖系统及发动机冷却系统。并应用热力学、传热学和流体力学的方法对该溴化锂制冷系统进行了热力计算和传热面积的计算,计算结果表明,溴化锂制冷系统充分利用了废气余热和冷却水余热,减少了汽车油耗,并且改造后的排气热交换器和冷却水箱传热面积小,结构简单紧湊。

关键词:汽车; 余热; 溴化锂; 吸收式制冷

中图分类号:U464   文献标识码:A       文章编号:


Research on LiBr Absorption Refrigeration System Using Automotive Engines’ Exhausted Heat


Zhou Dong-yi  Shi ChuPing  Yuan Wen-hua  Xiao Biao

(Department of Mechanical and Energy Engineering, Shaoyang University, Shaoyang Hunan 422000)


Abstract: Based on the structure and characteristic of automotive refrigeration system and engine circulation cooling water system and exhausted waste heat system, combing the working principle of lithium bromide absorption refrigeration system, the authors used the automotive exhaust pipe and cooling water tank improved as the generator of the lithium bromide absorption refrigeration system, which might realize the objective using the lithium bromide absorption hot-cold water unit to replace the automobile air conditioning refrigeration and heating system and the automobile engine cooling system. The methods of the thermodynamics, the heat transfer, the hydrodynamics are used to do the computation of the thermodynamic and the heat transfer area of the lithium bromide absorption refrigeration system. The result shows that it makes good use of exhausted heat of engine circulation cooling water and exhausted waste and reduces the consumption of oil. And it’structure is simple and compact for small heat transfer area of the automotive exhaust pipe and cooling water tank improved.

Keywords: Automotive; exhausted heat; LiBr; absorption refrigeration


0 引言

随着能源日益紧张,环境污染日益恶化,节约能源,降低排放,保护环境已经越来越引起世界各国人们的足够重视。汽车发动机的实用效率一般为35%~40%,约占燃料发热量25%左右被冷却水带走[1], 35~45%被汽车尾气带走[2],回收和利用这部分余热来驱动制冷系统用于汽车空调,是一种很好的节能方案,也是目前世界各国都在研究的课题。现在的汽车空调系统大致可分为两种情况,一种是轿车和中小型客车,其压缩机由主发动机驱动,一般要消耗8%-12%的汽车发动机动力,其中压缩机占80%~85%,风机占15%~20%[3],增加了油耗和废气排放,减少了汽车的运输能力,而且可能引起水箱过热,影响汽车动力性。另一种如大客车,制冷压缩机配备专门的副发动机,空调性能不受汽车行驶工况影响,但这样结构复杂,增加了整车的重量和布置难度,汽车的油耗和排污均增加,环境污染严重。

责任编辑: banye 参与评论